In this guide, we will explore the most useful and important CMD commands that every Windows user should know. It doesn’t matter if you are a computer expert or a beginner venturing into the world of the command line for the first time.

Ready? Let’s get started.

ipconfig

ipconfig: provides your computer’s IP configuration information

ipconfig // Show IP information
ipconfig /all // Shows all IP configuration information
ipconfig /release // Releases all DHCP leases for all cards

ping

ping: checks network connectivity to another host on the IP network

ping google.com // Sends ping packets to google.com
ping 192.168.1.1 // Sends ping packets to IP address 192.168.1.1
ping -n 10 google.com // Send 10 ping packets to google.com

netstat

netstat: shows network connections (both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and interface statistics

netstat // Show all active connections
netstat -a // Shows all connections and listening ports
netstat -r // Show the routing table

tracert

tracert: traces the path that network packets take from one host to another

tracert google.com // Trace the path to google.com
tracert 192.168.1.1 // Traces the path to IP address 192.168.1.1
tracert -d google.com // Trace the path to google.com without resolving addresses to host names

nslookup

nslookup: allows querying DNS servers to find DNS records for a domain

nslookup google.com // Find DNS records for google.com
nslookup -type=mx google.com // Find MX record for google.com
nslookup google.com 8.8.8 // Find DNS record for google.com using DNS server 8.8.8.8

sfc /scannow

sfc /scannow: scans system files for problems and attempts to repair them

sfc /scannow // Scans all system files and fixes errors

chkdsk

chkdsk: checks a disk or partition for errors and offers to fix them

chkdsk // Checks the C: drive for errors
chkdsk /f // Corrects errors on the disk
chkdsk D: /r // Finds bad sectors and recovers readable information

systeminfo

systeminfo: provides detailed information about your system

systeminfo // Shows basic system information

gpupdate /force

gpupdate /force: immediately enforces all changed group policies

gpupdate /force // Apply all changed group policies

diskpart

diskpart: a powerful tool for managing your hard disk partitions

diskpart // Opens the diskpart utility

tasklist

tasklist: shows all processes currently running on your system

tasklist // Shows all processes currently running
tasklist /v // Shows details of all running processes
tasklist /svc // Show related services for each process

taskkill

taskkill: terminate a specific task

taskkill /im notepad.exe // Terminate all "notepad.exe" tasks
taskkill /pid 1234 // Terminate the task with the ID 1234
taskkill /im notepad.exe /t // Terminates "notepad.exe" and associated child processes

fc

fc: compares two files and shows the differences between them

fc file1.txt file2.txt // Compare file1.txt and file2.txt

find

find: looks for a specific text string in a file

find "text" file.txt // Search for "text" in file.txt
find /v "text" file.txt // Show all lines that do not contain "text" in file.txt
find /i "text" file.txt // Search for "text" in file.txt ignoring the case-sensitive distinction

Remember that using the Command Prompt can have significant consequences if not used correctly. Before using any command, make sure you understand exactly what it does and how it might affect your system.

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